Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.
With the high prevalence of heart disease , links between lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity, are undergoing extensive research. The original research into caffeine's role in this epidemic resulted in conflicting answers. Some evidence suggests an elevation in stress hormones from caffeine consumption that could pose a cardiovascular risk, but recent research has shown no relationship between caffeine ingestion and heart disease . In fact, studies have actually shown a protective effect against heart disease with habitual intake of caffeinated beverages in the elderly population. The reason for the discrepancy may be due to the kind of beverage being consumed. Studies have shown that coffee and tea were not associated with increases in blood pressure or arrhythmias, while soft drinks were. Research also showed that decaffeinated coffee and tea did not provide the same benefits as the caffeinated versions. The well-respected Framingham Heart Study examined all potential links between caffeine intake and cardiovascular disease and found no harmful effects from drinking coffee. There can, however, be exceptions to this. People react differently to caffeine, and some may experience elevations in blood pressure or arrhythmias. The blood pressure elevations are said to be short lived, lasting no more than several hours and are comparable to modest elevations experienced climbing a flight of stairs. It's always best to check with your physician if you are experiencing any side effects.