There have been no randomized trials examining the effect of hydrocortisone given after the first week of life or used to treat infants with prolonged ventilator dependence. One retrospective cohort study compared infants who required assisted ventilation and oxygen after the first one to two weeks of age and received hydrocortisone with a group of healthier infants who did not receive hydrocortisone.  Infants treated with hydrocortisone experienced decreasing oxygen requirements and were successfully weaned from assisted ventilation. After seven days of treatment, there were no differences in oxygen requirements between the two groups. On follow-up, there were no differences in head circumference, neurological outcome, psychomotor development or school performance. Magnetic resonance imaging performed at eight years of age on a similar cohort of infants treated with hydrocortisone showed that although, overall, children born preterm had significantly reduced grey matter volumes compared to term children, there were no differences in the intracranial volumes, grey matter volumes or white matter volumes between children who did and did not receive hydrocortisone for treatment of CLD.  There were also no differences in neurocognitive outcomes, assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children.
Another common fear about corticosteroids is that they will cause growth suppression in children. To date, many studies have been done that prove that corticosteroids do not stunt a child's growth. Six years of ongoing studies in children and adolescents who used inhaled corticosteroids show that the speed of growth may be slowed by about 1 cm. over one year in children. However, these children catch up and do attain their full adult height. In some studies, these children grew even taller than their siblings. Interestingly, poorly controlled asthma can actually contribute to growth suppression.