Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a condition that results from improper metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. The aromatic in fenugreek, sotolon, may be used as a diagnostic criteria for MSUD as it exists in the urine of those persons with this metabolic defect and gives the characteristic sweet-scent.  It normally does not appear in healthy person's urine due to no dietary intake, but may appear in those who drink or consume fenugreek, leading to a false diagnosis.  Maternal consumption of sotolon can also transfer into the baby after birth, and cause trans-generational false diagnosis. 
As we mentioned, fenugreek contains 4-hydroxyisoleucine, the amino acid responsible for encouraging the production of insulin and lowering the rate of glucose assimilation in the intestines. This can be of particular benefit to those with diabetes for stabilizing blood sugar levels.
In one study , using the amino acid extracted from fenugreek seeds, it was concluded that "4-hydroxyisoleucine insulinotropic activity might, at least in part, account for fenugreek seeds' anti-diabetic properties."
In addition, the presence of galactomannan in fenugreek furthermore slows down the rate of blood sugar absorption. The sprouts or seeds can therefore be added to meals as a potentially effective way to prevent blood sugar spikes from high glycemic foods.
The diosgenin compound has been shown to help reduce the level of serum cholesterol. In addition, other saponins and extra components like polysaccharides, pectin, hemicellulose and mucilage are found to help lower the "bad" cholesterol (LDL) by binding to and eliminating toxins while inhibiting bile salts from being absorbed in the colon.
The preponderance of research to date suggests that exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are beneficial. These free radicals induce adaptive changes in muscle that lead to greater production of mitochondria and hypertrophy of myofibers [ 17 , 21 , 23 , 24 ]. Exposure of cells to high concentrations of various antioxidant supplements (of which vitamins C and/or E have the most evidence) appears to blunt or block cell signaling and thereby inhibit some favorable physiological and physical adaptations to exercise. However, these adaptations might not prevent improvements in VO 2 max or endurance performance [ 25 ].